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Hydrogenators

Gas-liquid reactions are very common in Chemical Process Industry and contribute to more than 30% of all the chemical commercial reactions. There are several commercially important reactions where the gas phase is pure/explosive/toxic.

In all these cases the gas phase is expensive and complete utilization of the solute gas is desired. The key feature of these reactors is the efficiency at which gas-liquid mixing occurs. For this purpose, it is important that the un-reacted gas from the gas space is drawn back into liquid. This difficult task has been achieved in the recently developed novel reactor design (which is patented). It uses the self induction principle for impellers. Energy efficient impeller designs have been developed for gas induction and gas dispersion. It is also efficient for gas-liquid-solid three phase reactions. The solid phase may be a catalyst or undergo a chemical reaction.

The solids concentration may vary from 0.005% v/v (in the case of noble metal catalyst) or 25% v/v (when solids undergo chemical reaction). It is a proven design and a large number of reactors are in successful commercial operation with a size range from 500 to 20,000 Liters.

Hydrogenator Brochure
List of Hydrogenators
Hydrogenator GA Drawing
  • Complete utilization of the solute in the gas phase.
  • Efficient gas-liquid mixing throughout the reactor, effective interfacial areas between 200 to 400 m2/m3 depending upon the system.
  • High rates of mass transfer : 0.08 to 0.15 s-1 depending upon the system.
  • High rates of heat transfer coefficient. More than 500 Kcal/hr. m2 oC. (Highest claimed value as compared with international vendors. Of course, it depends upon the nature of gas-liquid system). The high values of heat transfer coefficient have been achieved by the optimization of flow pattern near the heat transfer surface.
  • For effective gas-liquid contacting the power require is in the range of 2 to 5 kW/m3 depending upon the system and the designed time cycle.
  • Uniform mixing and suspension of the solid particles: the impeller speed is designed for effective heat transfer coefficient. Therefore the resulting impeller speed is typically 1.5-4 times higher than that required for uniform solid suspension.
  • Efficient solid-mixing throughout the reactor.
  • Effective liquid phase mixing.
  • Very wide experience in handling a variety of catalysts include nickel and noble metal. Experience also includes a large number of catalyst recycles for cost reduction.
  • Guidance is provided for the laboratory trials (approximately 1 liter capacity scale) and the confidence is generated for scale-up upto 50 m3 size reactor.
  • Energy efficiencies better than those claimed by the renowned international vendors in their published literature.
  • The higher efficiency of the reactor can be advantageously used by reducing reactor volume (less capital cost) or reducing temperature, pressure, power consumption and catalyst loading. The final optimum selection of parameters such as catalyst consumption, power consumption and pressure. The optimum temperature usually depends upon selectivity, corrosion rates and safe operation.
  • Catalytic hydrogenation.
  • Oxidation using pure oxygen or air. Manufacture of terephthalic acid, dim ethyl terephthalate, adipic acid, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, phenol, hydrogen peroxide, benzoic acid and substituted benzoic acids, benzaldehyde and substituted benzaldehydes, etc.
  • Alkylation using olefins.
  • Reductive alkylation.
  • Carbonylation
  • Carboxylation
  • Hydroformylation
  • Ammonolysis and ozonolysis
  • Addition halogenation.
  • Wastewater treatment using aerobic biological oxidation.
  • Hydro metallurgical operations for (I) oxidative recovery of solver in presence of HNO3 (ii) oxidative reaction of copper with H2SO4 for the manufacture of CuSO4

Over Ninety Reactors are in successful commercial operation. Following are some details:

No Application Range of reactor volume Product category
1. Saturation of double bonds. For example, In this case paraffin’s are formed from olefins or saturated fatty acids or saturated oils from the corresponding unsaturated acids and oils. 5 m3  -  20 m3 Fatty acids, hydrogenation (or hardening) of natural oils.
2. Nit rile to amine.  In this case C º N group is converted in to –CH2NH2. 0.1 m3  -  8 m3 Soap intermediates, Specialty chemicals
3. Saturation of aromatic ring.  The ring of substituted aromatic compounds are saturated. 0.5 m3  -  4.0 m3 Substituted anthraquinones, specialty chemicals, perfumery chemicals, cyclohexyl amine
4. Hydrogenation of aromatic nitro-compounds such m-dinitrobenzene, o-nitroaniline, p-nitroaniline, o-dinitrobenzene, p-dinitrobenzene’s, nitrotoluenes, nitroxylenes, nitro chlorobenzenes, nitroanisoles, nitro cumenes, etc. 2 m3  -  12 m3 Dye, pharmaceutical and agro-chemical intermediates.
5. Reductive amination and reductive alkylation. 1 m3  -  5 m3 Surface active agents, Pharmaceutical intermediates.